Thursday, 20 October 2011

kalinga

kalinga means name of sea board


 kAlingi and kalinji (ఆంధ్ర లో కాలింగ అంటారు, ఒరిస్సాలో కాలింజి అంటారు )
 
 
Kalinga.— A sub-division of Komatis, who "were 
formerly the inhabitants of the ancient Kalinga country. 
They are considered inferior to the other sub-divisions, 
on account of their eating flesh. Their titles are 
Subaddhi, Patro, and Chaudari." * In the Ganjam 
Manual, they are described as " traders and shopkeepers, 
principally prevalent in the Chicacole division. The 
name Kling or Kaling is applied, in the Malay countries, 
including the Straits Settlements, to the people of penin- 
sular India, who trade thither, or are settled in those 
regions." It is recorded by Dr. N. Annandale that the 
phrase Orang Kling Islam (i.e., a Muhammadan from 
the Madras coast) occurs in Patani Malay. 
 
Kalingi and Kalinji. — There has been some con- 
fusion, in recorded accounts, between these two classes. 
In the Ganjam Manual, the Kalinjis are described as 
agriculturists in that district, and, in the Vizagapatam 
Manual, the Kalingas or Kalingulu are stated to be 
cultivators in the Vizagapatam district, and a caste of 
Paiks or fighting men in Jeypore. In the Census 
Report, 1891, the Kalingis are said to be "most numer- 
ous in Ganjam, but there is a considerable number of 
 
 
 
* Madras Census Report, 1891. 
 
 
 
KALINGI AND KALINJI 48 
 
them in Vizagapatam also. The word means a native of 
KaHnga, the name of the sea-board of the Telugu country; 
the word Telugu itself is supposed by Dr. Caldwell to 
be a corruption of Tri-Kalinga. The three large sub- 
divisions of the caste are Buragam, Kintala, and Odiya. 
In the Kintala sub-division, a widow may remarry if she 
has no male issue, but the remarriage of widows is not 
allowed in other sub-divisions. The use of flesh and 
alcoholic liquor is permitted. Naidu and Chaudari are 
their titles." Further, in the Census Report, 1901, the 
Kalingis are described as follows : " A caste of temple 
priests and cultivators, found mainly in Ganjam and 
Vizagapatam, whither they are supposed to have been 
brought by the Kalinga kings to do service in the Hindu 
temples, before the advent of the Brahmans. They speak 
either Oriya or Telugu. They have two sub-divisions, 
the Kintali Kalingas, who live south of the Langulya 
river, and the Buragam Kalingis, who reside to the north 
of it, and the customs of the two differ a great deal. There 
is also a third section, called Pandiri or Bevarani, which 
is composed of outcastes from the other two. Except the 
Kalingis of Mokhalingam in Vizagapatam,* they have 
headmen called Nayakabalis or Santos. They also 
have priests called Kularazus, each of whom sees to the 
spiritual needs of a definite group of villages. They are 
divided into several exogamous gotras, each comprising 
a number of families or vamsas, some of which, such as 
Arudra, a lady-bird, and Revi-chettu, the Ficus religiosa 
tree, are of totemistic origin. Each section is said to 
worship its totem. Marriage before puberty is the rule, 
and the caste is remarkable for the proportion of its girls 
under twelve years of age who are married or widowed. 
 
 
 
• Mokhalingam is in Ganjam, not Vizagapatam. 
 
 
 
49 kAlingi and kAlinji 
 
Widow marriage is not recognised by the Buragam 
Kalingis, but the KintaHs freely allow it. As usual, the 
ceremonies at the wedding of a widow differ from those 
at the marriage of a maid. Some turmeric paste is 
placed on a new cloth, which is then put over a pot of 
water, and the ceremony takes place near this. The 
binding portion of it is the tying of a saffron-coloured 
string to the woman's wrist. The Kalingis pay special 
reverence to Sri Radha Krishna and Chaitanya. Some 
of the caste officiate in temples, wear the sacred thread, 
and call themselves Brahmans, but they are not received 
on terms of equality by other Brahmans. All Kalingis 
bury their dead, but sraddhas (memorial services) are 
performed only by the Kintali sub-division. The Bura- 
gam Kalingis do not shave their heads in front. Kalingi 
women wear heavy bangles of brass, silver bell-metal 
and glass, extending from the wrist to the elbow. The 
titles of the castes are Naidu, Nayarlu, Chowdari, Bissoyi, 
Podhano, Jenna, Swayi, and Naiko." 
 
In the foregoing account, the Oriya-speaking Kalinjis, 
and Telugu-speaking Kalingis, are both referred to. 
The confusion seems to have arisen from the fact that 
the Kalinjis are sometimes called Kalingis by other 
castes. The Kalingis are essentially Telugus, and are 
found mainly on the borderland between the districts 
of Ganjam and Vizagapatam. The Kalinjis are, on 
the other hand, Oriyas, and seem to be closely allied 
to the agricultural castes, Doluva, Alia, Bosantiya, 
etc., like which they are mainly agriculturists. The 
Kalinjis can be easily distinguished from the Kalingis, 
as the latter wear the sacred thread. The following 
story is told in connection with the origin of the 
Kalinji caste. A band of robbers was once upon a 
time staying in a fort near Bhattu Kunnarade, and 
1 1 1-4 
 
 
 
KALINGI AND KALINJI 50 
 
molesting the people, who invited the king of Puri to 
come and drive the robbers away. Among the warriors 
who were recruited for this purpose, was a member 
of the Khondaito caste, who, with the permission of 
the king, succeeded in expelling the robbers. He 
was named by the people Bodo-Kalinja, or one having 
a stout heart. He and his followers remained in the 
Ganjam country, and the Kalinjis are their descend- 
ants. The caste is widespread in the northern part 
thereof. 
 
There do not seem to be any sub-divisions among the 
Kalinjis, but there is a small endogamous group, called 
Mohiri Kalinji. Mohiri is a well-known division in 
Ganjam, and Kalinjis who dwell therein intermarry with 
others, and do not form a separate community. It has 
been suggested that the Mohiri Kalinjis are Telugu 
Kalingis, who have settled in the Oriya country. Like 
other Oriya castes, the Kalinjis have gotras, e.g., banc 
(sun), sukro (star), sanko (conch-shell), bhago (tiger) 
and nago (cobra). There is a good deal of confusion 
regarding the gotras in their connection with marriage. 
The same gotra, e.g., sukro, is exogamous in some places, 
and not so in others. Many titles occur among the 
Kalinjis, e.g., Borado, Bissoyi, Bariko, Behara, Dolei, 
Gaudo, Jenna, Moliko, Naiko, Patro, Podhano, Pulleyi, 
Ravuto, Santo, Savu, Swayi, Guru. In some places, the 
titles are taken as representing bamsams (or vamsams), 
and, as such, are exogamous. Families as a rule refrain 
from marrying into families bearing the same title. For 
example, a Dolei man will not marry a Dolei girl, 
especially if their gotras are the same. But a Dolei may 
marry a Pullei, even if they have the same gotra. 
 
The headman of the Kalinjis is styled Santo, and he 
is assisted by a Patro. There is also a caste messenger. 
 
 
 
51 KALINGI AND KALINJI 
 
called Bhollobhaya. For the whole community there 
are said to be four Santos and four Patros, residing at 
Attagada, Chinna Kimedi, Pedda Kimedi, and Mohiri. 
A man who is suffering from a wound or sore infested by 
maggots is said to be excommunicated, and, when he has 
recovered, to submit himself before the caste-council 
before he is received back into the community. 
 
Girls are generally married before puberty, and, if 
a real husband is not forthcoming, a maid goes through a 
mock marriage ceremony with her elder sister's husband, 
or some elder of the community. A bachelor must 
be married to the sado {^Strebhts asper) tree before 
he can marry a widow. The remarriage of widows 
(thuvathuvvi) is freely allowed. A widow, who has a 
brother-in-law, may not marry anyone else, until she has 
obtained a deed of separation (tsado patro) from him. 
The marriage ceremonies conform to the standard Oriya 
type. In some places, the little fingers of the contract- 
ing couple are linked, instead of their hands being tied 
together with thread. On the fourth day, a Bhondari 
(barber) places on the marriage dais some beaten rice 
and sugar-candy, which the bride and bridegroom sell 
to relations for money and grain. The proceeds of 
the sale are the perquisite of the Bhondari. On the 
seventh day, the bridegroom breaks a pot on the dais, 
and, as he and the bride go away, the brother of 
the latter throws brinjal {^Solmitmt Melongena) fruits 
at him. 
 
The dead are as a rule cremated. On the day 
after death, food, made bitter by the addition of mar- 
gosa {Melia Azadirachta) leaves, is offered. A piece 
of bone is carried away from the burning-ground, and 
buried under a pipal {Ficus religiosa) tree. Daily, until 
the tenth day, water is poured seven times over the spot 
ni-4 B 
 
 

6 comments:

  1. It's really very useful. I came to know that in some localities this Kalinga Caste also called as Rajulu. Is it true?

    ReplyDelete
  2. Y is kalinga caste an backward caste?

    ReplyDelete
  3. for the development of these peoples the former famous MP dr B.Rajagopalrao propose to change the caste ie OC TO BC-A SINO-28

    ReplyDelete
  4. My self Tulasiram Kintali, I would like to Appreciate your Affords for Providing this information But here I have a Question if we are a Agricultulars in that Areas its Fine then y Our gothras are Mix of Both kshtriya and Brahmin and one More Thing all Paika's are saying that Kshatriyas in oddiya they are occupied in 4districts now .

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  5. Kalinji's are agriculturists who have the said gotras as bano , sukro etc , but Kalingii's who have sacred thread are having
    Kashyapa , Bharadwaja Gotras as prevelant in Brahmins and Kshatriyas.should not be confused.

    Hanumantu Santa Rao , Vizag.

    ReplyDelete
  6. hi all...
    i want to know is kalinga came from kings or not?

    ReplyDelete